European Journal of Social Sciences

Volume 49 No 1
September, 2015
Modeling the Factors of International Expansion of Lebanese Family Business
This research attempts to examine the factors behind the success of the international expansion of two Lebanese family businesses, Gandour and Café Najjar, in the food and beverage sector of economic activity were modeled in a world governed by imperfect information.
In order to do so, the constructivism was adopted. It dictated mainly a qualitative methodology relying on the interview and on the narrated case study assisted by secondary data retrieved from mass and social media. Hence, the model was elaborated after undertaking a separate and a comparative case study of both companies’ international expansion.
In fact, adopting the appropriate related product diversification and a realistic customer driven marketing strategy and a continuous quality control allowed the family business survival and then continuity through overcoming the nepotism in the recruitment and in the succession. Once the business was continuous, it was able to expand on an international scale through using the adequate mode and to even be in a blue ocean strategy position.
Keyword: Lebanese Family Business, International Expansion, Bounded Rationality, Red and Blue Ocean Strategy
The Impact of Business Ethics Issues on the Long Term Success of Banks in Tripoli
Today, business executives have many reasons to be part with the ethical standards of their organizations. Perhaps the most straightforward reason is that the law requires it, often as a minimum.
Moreover, given the declining average life expectancy of firms, maintaining an ethical advantage becomes a vital distinction between successful and unsuccessful firms. A firm’s ethical reputation can provide a competitive edge in the marketplace with customers, suppliers and employees. On the positive side, managing ethically can also pay significant dividends in organizational struc¬ture and efficiency.
This research examines the relationship between business ethics issues (corporate social responsibility, corporate governance…) and the success of banks in Tripoli on the long run. A qualitative research using structured interviews was conducted with 4 branch managers of banks working in Tripoli. These banks were chosen due to the fact that they are ranked as the top 4 banks in Lebanon. Also a small questionnaire was distributed among 162 bank employees representing different banks located in Tripoli. Thematic analysis was used to analyze the interview and questionnaire transcripts. It was revealed from this study that the application of ethical business practices in banks that operate in Tripoli affects positively the reputation of these banks and their performance on the long run.
Keyword: Business ethics, Social Responsibility, brand reputation, corporate governance
Consumption Expenditure in Jordan: an Analytical Study based on Household Expenditures & Income Survey 2010
Nahil Saqfalhait
Using household data from the 2010 Household Expenditure Survey conducted by the Department of Statistics in Jordan, this paper deeply analyzes expenditure patterns and the major differences among governorates to determine whether inequalities among governorates in Jordan is existed and to see whether the status of this inequality is improving or worsening over the different income groups. In the second part of the paper, consumption functions are estimated for the twelve governorates and the kingdom as a whole to obtain the MPC from disposable income while controlling for other household characteristics.
Evidently, the MPC varies sharply across governorates. These findings confirm that policy makers should consider the aggregate consumption effects of income shocks that affect households of specific income groups in each governorate when applying policies targeted at vulnerable households.
In light of the empirical findings, the present study proposes introducing a balancing income projects to bridge the gap between available income and poverty line, and encouraging the private sector in providing employment opportunities for the poor. Additionally, it is important to improve physical and social infrastructure in poor communities and providing training and Employment Support Programs for the poor. Moreover, it is essential to enhance the capacity of financial intermediaries to be more efficient in providing sustainable financial and non-financial services to support the poor.
Keywords: expenditure patterns, consumption function, Jordan, Household Expenditure Survey.
JEL: C21, D91 D31, E21, I32, O5
The Effect of Price, Brand Image, and Feature Toward Customer Satisfaction and its Impact on Brand Loyalty Samsung Mobile Phone in Banda Aceh
Mukhlis Yunus, Khairul Fata, M. Shabri. Abd. Majid and Muammar Khaddafi
The purpose of the study was to determine: (1) the condition of Brand Loyalty, Customer Satisfaction, Price, Brand Image, and Feature Samsung mobile phone in Banda Aceh; (2) the effect of Price, Brand Image, and Feature either simultaneously or partially to Customer Satisfaction of the Samsung mobile phone in Banda Aceh; (3) the effect of Price, Brand Image, and Feature either simultaneously or partially to the Brand Loyalty of the Samsung mobile phone in Banda Aceh; (4) the effect of Customer Satisfaction to the Brand Loyalty of the Samsung mobile phone in Banda Aceh; (5) the mediating effect of the Price, Brand Image, and Feature to the Brand Loyalty via Customer Satisfaction of the Samsung mobile phones customers in Banda Aceh. The sample of the study was 100 Samsung mobile phone customers, which were selected by the purposive sampling technique, and analysed using the path analysis. The results showed that Brand Loyalty, Customer Satisfaction, Price, Brand Image, and Feature Samsung mobile phone in Banda Aceh is not good. The results showed that Price, Brand Image, and Feature either simultaneously or partially affected Customer Satisfaction. The study also found that the Price, Brand Image, and Feature either simultaneously or partially affected Brand Loyalty. In addition, Customer Satisfaction was also found to affect Brand Loyalty. Finally, the study also showed that the Consumer Satisfaction mediated the effect of the Price, Brand Image, and Feature to Brand Loyalty of the Samsung mobile phones in Banda Aceh. This study provides some important implications for marketers attempting to increase Customer Satisfaction, and Brand Loyalty: (1) Setting a high price for the Samsung brand positioning as the brand mobile phone have a high prestige; (2) Improve the Brand Image of Samsung mobile phone with a clearer identity as a brand of mobile phones that have a high prestige; (3) Perform a continous innovation on Samsung mobile phone features.
Keywords: Price, Brand Image, Feature, Customer Satisfaction, and Brand Loyalty.
Analyzing the Structure of Pharmaceutical Industry in Jordan
Mohammad Alomari and Nahil Saqfalhait
This paper aims to analyze the structure of pharmaceutical industry in Jordan during the period 2004 – 2012 by investigating the level of industrial concentration, the industrial entry barriers, and the product differentiation within the industry. Additionally, determinants for the pharmaceutical industry in Jordan are examined. The questions of this study are: do firms in pharmaceutical industry in Jordan have satisfactory level of competition or some firms dominate the market with large market power? How the level of competition in this industry has developed over time? What are the main characteristics of the structure of this industry?
The concentration measures reveal that the pharmaceutical industry in Jordan has oligopoly market structure in which few large firms dominate the market. Those firms are characterized by the acquisition of the largest market share, as well as possessing high production capabilities that help them to differentiate their products and to reduce production costs.
Keywords: Pharmaceutical Industry, Market Share, Market Structure, Concentration.
 JEL classification codes: L1, L6
Predicting Developmental Learning Disabilities for Kindergarten Children
Dr. Nawaf Malaab Al-Dhafeeri and Saad M. Alamer
This study aims at identifying differences between kindergarten children suffering from developmental learning disabilities and regular children, based on some factors as school readiness, pre-academic skills and cognitive mental development and the influence of these factors to predict the developmental learning disabilities for children at this stage. The study was conducted in Kuwait on a sample of (83) kindergarten children of whom 38 are suffering from developmental learning disabilities and 45 normal children. The results showed differences with statistical indications at the level of 0.000 between children with developmental learning disabilities and normal children in favor of the latter. However, the results also showed the existence of relational indicative statistical correlation between developmental learning disabilities and these factors .Also, the ability of all these factors to predict 84% of developmental learning disabilities for kindergarten children.
Keyword: kindergarten children- developmental learning disabilities- prediction.
Validation of Farsi version of the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K10) in college students
Mohammad Kazem Atef Vahid, Mahboubeh Dadfar, Fazel Bahrami and David Lester
The Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K10) is an instrument that is widely used to screen for mental disorders. It is a brief dimensional scale designed to measure and monitor trends of psychological distress and the level of distress and severity associated with psychological symptoms in population surveys. The aim of the present study was to examine the reliability and validity of Farsi version of the Kessler Psychological Distress scale (K10). The sample was a convenience sample of 187 Iranian undergraduates and postgraduates selected from different faculties of Iran University of Medical Sciences (IUMS), Iran. Using a Principal Component Analysis and Varimax Rotation with Kaiser Normalization, one factor was identified, labeled Psychological Distress. The K10 had good inter-item and test-retest reliability and significant positive correlations with the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale-6 (K6) and General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) scores. The results highlight the importance of cross-cultural validation. The K10 may prove to be useful in clinical practice and research on anxiety and depression disorders.
Keyword: psychological distress, mental health, mental illness, validation, K10.
Genjek Art As Cultural And Economic Capitals
(Symbolic Power and Violence Representations in The District of Art in Buleleng, Bali)
LP Sendratari
Observers assess that the study of turmoil or hostility of ideology in art is a rare thing. This writing is intended as upholding the view that art domain is still open for analysis from various perspectives, genjek art is no exception. This art belongs to folk art that historically evolves from the motivation of peasants to express their artistic impulse at their free time. Buleleng has genjek art base in rural areas which currently has developed parallel to the development of tourism in Buleleng. Genjek as cultural capital appears from the action of art, pronunciation, language style in the songs produced. Through actions of art and wide publication of genjek art, cultural reproduction that can reinforce the establishment of power and violence relations with gender perspective occurs. In addition to the cultural reproduction, gender and feministic ideological struggle is also apparent in the form of hidden manuscripts. In this context, genjek art do not just function as entertainment, but beyond it there is a need to develop a format as educational media. Genjek art also contains economic capital that can be used as the foundation for developing entrepreneurship in performing art.
Keyword: cultural capital, economic capital, representation, struggle
Alienation from Work: Contributions of Abusive Supervision, Role Overload and Employee Self-efficacy
Ike E. Onyishi, Fabian O. Ugwu, Chidi Ugwu, Lawrence O. Amazue and Felicia Osondu Okwueze
Research on work alienation has mainly centred on its nature and consequences. An understanding of both contextual and individual variables that lead to work alienation is necessary to develop workplace interventions that may reduce its occurrence. This study investigated the contributions of perceived abusive supervision, role overload, and self-efficacy to nurses' alienation from work. A cross-sectional, correlation study was adopted for the study. The participants were 209 nurses from a government-owned hospital in the North-central region of Nigeria. The abusive supervision, role overload, self-efficacy and the work alienation scales were used to collect data. Consistent with our hypothesis, the results of the regression analyses showed that abusive supervision is positively and significantly related to work alienation. Contrary to our hypothesis and in disagreement with previous studies, role overload was not related to work alienation. As anticipated, the results revealed that self-efficacy was negatively and significantly related to work alienation. Work alienation may not necessarily be as a result of role overload but may result from abusive behavior of supervisors. The implications of the findings to employment development were discussed.
Keyword: Abusive supervision, role overload, self-efficacy, work alienation.
The Moral Unity as an Element for Realizing the Criminal Complicity
Dr Hasan ALTarawneh
This study deals with the condition of the moral unity between the accomplices in the crime.The crime unity can only be achieved with respect to the moral aspect if all the accomplices have the moral association that gathers them under the banner of one criminal plan. The moral unity assumes that the moral association is achieved between the accomplices in the form of previous agreement, or at least previous understanding to commit the crime or be contemporary to this commission.The moral association also can be achieved if the accomplices in the crime have the intention to cooperate.That is,each accomplice has committed his act in collaboration with the other actors in order to commit a certain crime planned in their minds even if there was no previous agreement because the important issue of the criminal complicity is the cooperation itself which may be established without being based on the agreement. Article (76) of the Jordan Penal Law states as follows: (if several joint persons committed a crime or misdemeanor united ....)