European Journal of Social Sciences

Volume 53 No 2
October, 2016
Inflation and Macroeconomic Variables: Evidence from Nigeria
Babatunde Afolabi, Abuh Uwasejike Belford, Ekpenyong Keziah Yemisi and Christopher Ehinomen
The major rationale of macroeconomic policies in Nigeria like several other nations of the world is to strive to maintain a reasonable inflation level and thereby foster economic growth. However, there have been considerable deliberations on whether the level of inflation advance or impairs economic growth. Prompted by this raging controversy, this paper attempted to investigate the relationship between inflation and macroeconomic variables in Nigeria. The study employed Time-series data for the period 1982-2014. The regression results established the degree of responsiveness of changes in macroeconomic variables, while GDP per capita was used as proxy for economic growth; exchange rate, money supply, one lagged period of inflation was used as proxies for inflation expectation in Nigeria. The study observed a long-run equilibrium situation of the variables through cointegration technique. Our findings suggest that inflation is negatively correlated with economic growth, exchange rate and real interest rate but positively and significantly correlated with money supply and inflation expectation or inertia in Nigeria. The study also discovered the existence of the short-term causality between inflation and exchange rate but no causality with others. The study therefore recommends that government should implement expedient monetary and fiscal policies to tackle the menace - “inflation” so as to attain a stable and progressive economic growth in the country.
Keywords: Inflation, economic growth, OLS, Wald test
Controllable Conflicts and Sustainable Economic Development: A Case Study of Niger Delta Region, Nigeria
Chinwe R. Okoyeuzu, and Kabiru Isa Dandago
Conflicts are unavoidable especially in a democratic setting where arms of government are expected to exercise control over the affairs of government so as to ensure effective check and balance situation and fairness in running the state affairs. This paper, which is mainly a library research output, carries a case study of the conflict resolution efforts at the Nigerian Niger Delta Region. The paper discusses the benefits of controllable conflicts in the Nigerian democratic setting, and proposes ways of resolving any conflict amicably in the best interest of the present and future generations of Nigeria. The paper highlights sources of conflicts in this great country and how the rising conflicts should be diplomatically managed as the country derives the benefits of conflicts for achieving sustainable national development. Conflict resolution measures, as practiced in the Nigerian Niger Delta region, are instruments for ensuring the sustainable peace the country needs to guarantee sustainable national development. The paper recommends that, where it appears non-existent, conflict should be provoked by the leaders in public or private sector organizations, whose main job is to prevent conflict from going beyond moderate levels; which might make it metamorphose into crises or wars that could lead to destruction of lives and properties.
Keyword: Conflicts, Conflict Resolution, Peaceful Co-existence, Democratic setting, Sustainable Economic Development, Nigeria.
In-Service Professional Training Needs of Teachers for Effective Implementation of Junior Secondary Social Studies Curriculum in Nsukka Education Zone, Enugu State, Nigeria
Nwaubani Okechukwu.O, Utor Anthonia, Agbo Chidi Nathaniel and Edeh Nkechinyere Charity
There is a perceived trend of decline in teacher quality in Nigeria today. This situation has been attributed to many related factors one of which is inadequate in-service professional training based on teachers’ perceived needs, problems and aspirations. Against this background this study sought to determine the in-service (professional) training needs of teachers for effective implementation of junior secondary school Social Studies curriculum in Nsukka education zone, Enugu State, Nigeria. The study adopted a descriptive survey design. Three research questions and two null hypotheses guided the study. The sample consisted of one hundred and eighty (180) Social Studies teachers. Instrument for data collection consist of 18-item questionnaire titled “In-service Training Needs of Teachers’ Questionnaire (ITNTQ). The instrument was validated by relevant experts in the field and its reliability co-efficient was determined using Cronbach Alpha statistic which yielded a reliability index of 0.72. Data collected were analyzed using mean scores and standard deviation to answer the research questions while z-test was used to test the two null hypotheses at 0.05 level of significance. The findings of the study among other things showed that knowledge and mastery of content needs, pedagogical skills needs and counseling needs constitute the basic in-service professional training needs required by teachers for effective implementation of junior secondary school Social Studies curriculum. Gender did not significantly influence teacher’s professional training needs. These findings were discussed and conclusions were drawn. It was recommended among other things that involving social studies teachers in the planning and implementation stages of the various professional training programmes could help to ensure that their training needs are considered in providing in-service trainings for effective curriculum implementation.
Keywords: In-Service, Professional Training, Teacher effectiveness, Implementation, Social Studies Curriculum and gender.
Resource Availability and Utilization for Effective Teaching of Sexuality and Hiv/Aids Education Contents in Junior Secondary School Social Studies Curriculum in Nsukka Education Zone, Enugu State, Nigeria
Nwaubani, Okechukwu O., Onah Celina N., Ezema Luke Chizoba and Edeh Nkechinyere Charity
This study assessed the extent of availability and utilization of resources for effective implementation of Sexuality and HIV/AIDS contents of Junior Secondary School Social Studies curriculum in Nsukka Education Zone, Enugu State, Nigeria. The study adopted descriptive survey design. Three research questions and two null hypotheses guided the study. A sample of 180 Social studies teachers drawn from fifty nine (59) Junior Secondary Schools in Nsukka Education Zone of Enugu State were purposively selected for the study. The instruments used for data collection were Checklist, Observational Schedule and Questionnaire. The instruments were validated by relevant experts in the field and their reliability co-efficient ascertained. Data collected were analyzed using percentages, mean and standard deviation while t-test of independent sample was used to test the null hypotheses at 0.05 level of significance. The findings of the study revealed among other things that radio, newspapers, posters, films and videos of HIV/AIDS patients, magazines and social studies textbooks constitute instructional materials available for effective implementation of Sexuality and HIV/AIDS contents of JSS Social curriculum. The findings also revealed that teachers utilized to a very high extent available instructional materials such as charts, pictorials, newspapers, textbooks as well as photographs of HIV/AIDS patients in the implementation of Sexuality and HIV/AIDS contents of junior secondary school Social Studies curriculum. However, the dominant method of teaching Sexuality and HIV/AIDS Education contents of Social curriculum at junior secondary schools in Nsukka Education zone is the lecture method. It was also revealed that there is no significant difference in the mean rating of teachers with B.ED and NCE qualifications on the extent of utilization of recommended instructional methods for effective implementation of Sexuality and HIV/AIDS contents of Social curriculum. Similarly, it was also shown that there is no significant difference in the mean rating of teachers with B.ED and NCE qualification on the extent of utilization of recommended instructional materials for effective implementation of Sexuality and HIV/AIDS contents of Social Studies. Based on these findings, it was recommended among other things that there is urgent need to ensure that required resources are made available and utilized by teachers for effective implementation of Sexuality and HIV/AIDS contents of JSS Social Studies curriculum in Nigeria.
Keywords: Resources, Social Studies, Sexuality and HIV/AIDS Education, Curriculum Implementation, Qualification
The Influence of Social Networking on Older Adults’ Psychosocial Adjustment in Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria
Joy I. Anyanwu, Mkpoikanke Sunday Otu, Bernedeth N. Ezegbe, Obiageli Chinyelu Njoku, Inwang Etim Udom and Chinenye Ifeoma Ogidi
Background: In Nigeria, sixty (60) years seems to be the age at which an individual is considered as an “older adult”. Such individuals when they retire from active service might feel isolated and often face psychosocial adjustment challenges. This may be due to the “empty nest” syndrome where all the children have left home and the loss of social contacts in the workplace exacerbated by loss of activity and social networking might be a way forward. Therefore, the present study sought to investigate the influence of social networking on older adults’ psychosocial adjustment in Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria.
Methods: The sample consisted of 248 retirees who were randomly selected. This ex post facto study used two self-report questionnaires – Social networking questionnaire (0.89alpha) and psychosocial adjustment questionnaire (0.73alpha) for data collection. The data obtained was analyzed using mean, standard deviation, Eta squared, t-test statistic, and ANOVA (p≤0.05).
Results: Results show that social networking influence older adult’ psychosocial adjustments by level of education, location, occupation status and gender. The implications and limitations of the present findings for retirement counseling in Nigeria are discussed.
Conclusion: The findings of the study confirm that social networking enhances psychosocial adjustment. Thus, there is need for older adults to embrace social networking as an opportunity to get in touch with family and friends every time. When this is done there will be decreased vulnerability to chronic health conditions which are often seen as the hallmark of aging, and can significantly impact older people’s psychological and social well-being.
Keywords: Influence, older adults, psychosocial adjustment, retirees, social networking.
How Land Fragmentation and Soil Fertility Affect Rice Producers' Technical Efficiency: Evidence from Bangladesh
A. K. M. Abdullah Al-Amin, M. Saidur Rahman and S. M. Sayem
This article analyses that how rice producers’ technical efficiency (TE) in Bangladesh is influenced by land fragmentation and soil fertility. A total of 180 farm households from six villages were selected using multistage stratified random sampling procedure. Translog stochastic frontier model was employed to address this TE. Rice productivity displayed much variability in TE ranging from 0.73 to 96.23 percent with mean technical efficiency of 72 percent. The mean technical efficiency results indicate that farmers operate 28 percent below the production frontier and there is enough room to increase yields about 1017.08 kg per farm. Among the four land fragmentation indicators, the number of plots had positive effects and an increase in the average plot size reduces TE. A large distance between main road and plots was observed to have negative impact on TE. The study also found that soil fertility had positive impact on TE. Policy implications of this study include addressing the structural causes of land fragmentation, developing effective strategies to promote soil conservation, improving extension services and increasing knowledge about variety selection.
Keywords: Land fragmentation, rice productivity, soil fertility, stochastic production frontier, technical efficiency.
Audit Size, Mandatory Audit. And Time Budget Pressure On And Audit Risk And Audit Quality On Practice Of Accounting Users
Muh. Rum
The purpose of this study is to know the independency public oversight on auditing in detecting audit quality in Makassar . Moreover to prove the Fuzzy theory in terms of people’s thoughts, inference, and perception, and to solve the data of uncertainty in the environment of audit’s objects. This survey was distributed to a random sample of external auditors and the staff who have experience in financial audit. Sample data collected about 72 personal, as well as respondents from more than 300 population of an auditor. Applied technical research by Smart Partial Least Square. Our finding is that the wider the scope of the audit will be an effort to develop audit procedures, while in a case of time and budget pressure will suppress audit quality for their budget and time constraints. As well as the mandatory audit which is auditor get compulsory to maintain the quality. The Auditor is required to focus on predicting the probability the risk will happen after audit report's date.
Keywords: Audit Size, Time And Budget Pressure, Mandatory Audit, Audit Risk, Audit Quality
The Role of Media in the Arab Revolutions: Jordan
Dr. Walid Alkhatib
The media has assumed a central role in shaping public opinion particularly with the rise in protest activity during the recent uprisings in the region. The influx of news caused an information revolution that played an important role in undermining the state monopoly on knowledge and information. During the Arab Spring, the media transformed and worked to disseminate information faster and to a more diverse range of people. Thus, the media has become more involved in the Arab Spring and expanded its role from previous revolutions. The media began a competition between political actors and changed the manner in which these actors responded to political and ideological conflicts. This research is important because it sheds light on how the media influences Jordanians’ views on the Arab Spring. However, this study was limited because it accounted only for the opinions of Jordanians, and hence does not necessarily reflect the opinions of citizens in other Arab nations.
To fully understand the impact of the media on the Arab Spring, we examined the results of a survey done by the Center for Strategic Studies and analyzed them along with other statistics on the rise of social media. Through our analysis, we found that Jordanians believe that the news is biased and has a hidden agenda. This led us to question whether Jordanians were using sources other than traditional media for their information on the protests. From this, we have created the following hypothesis: social media’s role in the Arab Spring as a news agent was largely due to dissatisfaction with the current and conventional news agencies’ manner of reporting.
Keywords: Social media, Arab Spring, Facebook, Twitter, YouTube, One-way ANOVA, Two sample t-test.
Parent Participation and Academic Performance: Pisa Cross-National Perspective (Reading and Mathematics)
Jose Maria Fernandez-Crehuet and Javier Perote
This paper studies the impact of different types of parental involvement on the students’ performance on both reading and mathematics. We analyze the results of PISA surveys for the 9 countries that implemented the PISA parental questionnaire in 2009 (reading) and 2012 (mathematics). We find that daily parental involvement in academic homework is a good predictor for the students’ underperformance and meetings between parents and teachers are negatively/positively correlated to the students’ performance when the meeting is at the parents’/teachers’ initiative. Parental involvement with children at home is also found as a positive factor but parental involvement in extra-curricular activities at school seems to be insignificant.
Keywords: Parent Participation, Academic Achievement, PISA, Household, Family Involvement.
JEL Classification: H52, I21.
Small Tourism Projects and their Role in the Local Development Iraq Al- Amir (Case Study- Jordan)
Ismail Mohammad Al-Zyoud and Nada Abdel Raouf Al-Rawabde
This study highlights a sample of small tourism projects whose non-governmental organizations carry out in Iraq Al- Amir area, due to its effective role in raising the local population, the economic and social situation, and improving live means through finding work opportunities for them, due to expanding the internal tourism net and the beneficiaries. The study importance stems from the attempt to link projects types, targeted group and unemployment reduction. The study used the brainstorming approach to conclude the most import problems small projects face and the suggested solution based on the targeted individuals.
Since it was shown that small projects in Iraq Al- Amir area were facing problems in work management and its conditions upon establishment, and that the governmental organizations are not working effectively for the purpose of such projects success through neglecting important aspect such as the follow up, in addition, the owners of these projects need enough studies to solve the existing problem related to marketing, and funding the current projects and expanding by new projects.

Institutional Diversification and the Challenges of Contemporary Changes in World Higher Education for Development in Nigeria
Oghenekohwo. J.E, Iyunade Olufunmilayo T. and Egenti, M.N.
Note: This Paper was earlier published in Vol 6 Issue 2 in 2008, is now re-published in this Issue
This paper examines the contention in the rationalization of African’s pressure by donor agencies insistence on basic education at the expense of development and diversification of higher education institutions towards addressing the development issues of the continent. As globalization phenomenon gathers momentum, there seem to be a risk of decline in higher education and the very urgent need to encourage a strong, dynamic renewal to be considered as partnership, rather than a dependent on a new, albeit an existing social order that places higher education into challenging opportunities which must be explored for Africa development. This paper therefore addresses five major but contemporary issues that face higher education in the context of globalisation and African development challenges. These issues include: demand for access and a shift from elite to mass higher education; appropriation of financial resource through adequate funding and the growing need for accountability and transparency measures; maintenance of quality and relevance, reassessment of academic degrees and diplomas; and internationalization in higher education teaching, training, research and development. These issues provide relevance or otherwise, to what other challenges facing the harvesting of global scientific knowledge for the development of African higher education.