European Journal of Social Sciences

Volume 59 No 4
June, 2020
Challenges Faced by Small Farmers in Belize
Tenesha Reynolds and Somanadevi Thiagarajan
Agriculture plays a major role in the economies of developing countries. Small farmers in developing countries face a number of challenges which affects the level of their agricultural productivity. This study examined the small farmers’ perceptions in selected priority areas of Belize on the accessibility of agricultural finance and access to markets in Belize. The data were collected from small farmers in the selected areas using a structured questionnaire as a survey instrument and analysed using SPSS. The findings of this study showed that the small farmers faced many constraints including but not limited to the low market price for produce, pests and diseases, weather-related events, and lack of funding for expansion purposes. The findings also revealed that small farmers are not actively involved in formal banking with the majority not having a savings account or access to credit. Based on the result of this study recommendations were made to improve the outreach activities to rural farmers by the agricultural department in collaboration with financial institutions for low interest rate in agricultural finance. Recommendations were also made to explore non-traditional avenues for marketing and the development of a legal framework for contract farming.
Keywords: Belize, small farmers, agriculture finance, collective action, farmers’ organization, market access.
Impact of Strike Actions on Students and Government in Tertiary Institutions in Ekiti State, Nigeria
Abiodun Eunice, Olatide, Olaoye Ajiboye Ojo, Bolarinwa Dapo Alonge and Olusegun Grace Funmilayo
The study attempts to analyse the courses, effect and implication of incessant strike on the education in tertiary institutions. The paper examined students, government and the unfair circumstances by the employee, ability of the employees to provide for their family, students roaming about the streets, well learned academics still engaged in farming, trading to fetch food for their family, the ugly situations faced by students during strike and failed government promises. It was however concluded that the school calendar needs to be restored appropriately to stabilize the school system. Government should fulfill all their promises made during resolution meetings and restore the glory of education and status of lecturers/teachers in the country when adequate infrastructures and man power are provided for use on our various purposes. Government must ensure security of lifes and properties to make learning more meaningful.
Keyword: Incessant Strike, Employees, Enmoluments, Grievances.
Human Trafficking and Migration in Africa: An Ethical Concern
T. C. Falana and Olufunmilola Adekiitan Omotayo
Human trafficking is a global problem. It is commonly practised in African nations and many other countries in the world such as Russia, Venezuela, Iran, Libya, Zimbabwe, Mauritania and Equatorial Guinea. It involves the recruitment, transportation and transfer of persons by use of force or other forms of fraud, abuse of power or giving and receiving of fees for the purpose of exploitation. Some of the factors that promote the practise in Africa are poverty, lack of job opportunities, search for better standard of living, political disorder, religious crisis, oppression and security problems. Most of the victims of human trafficking are women and young children. Many of them are enticed by the promise of well-paying employments and improved working conditions but end up in countries where traffickers force them into prostitution and forced labour and other forms of exploitation. Many of the trafficked people are subjected to various forms of difficulties and health challenges such as gonorrhoea, syphilis, HIV/AIDS, hepatitis and other sexually transmitted diseases. The paper investigates the causes, purpose and effects of human trafficking. It also examines human trafficking from the Kantian and Utilitarian points of view. Considering the two ethical theories, Utilitarian principles appear to uphold human trafficking. However, the author explains that the Utilitarianism is not sufficient to justify the morality of human trafficking and argues that members of the society have a strict duty of beneficence towards other persons. Hence, there is a need to promote other people’s welfare by respecting their rights and avoiding harming them. It further argues that government, religious institutions and non-governmental organizations have important roles to play in the eradication of human trafficking in African society.
Keywords: Human trafficking, Migration, Utilitarianism, Kantianism, Morality.
Langue Française et Mondialisation: Perspectives Géolinguistiques Nationales de Promotion de Bilinguisme Individuel au Nigeria
Samson Fabian Nzuanke, Nwobu Emmanuel Nnamdi and Gloria Wilson Inyang
Even if the Nigerian Constitution 1999 (as amended) is silent about the use of French in the country, this is provided for in the National Policy on Education (2004). Naturally such inconsistencies will raise questions about the real place of French in Nigeria’s geopolitical landscape and, indirectly, about the degree of its acceptability to the average Nigeria. In this study, we intend to put this debate about the real place of the French language in Nigeria in perspective. This is in relation to both the provisions of the National Policy on Education (2004) and the innermost language desires of the average Nigerian. To attain this objective, we collected primary data through questionnaire and observation. These were analyzed alongside the secondary data which we collected from some documentation centres in Abuja, Calabar, Lagos, Sokoto and Uyo. Our analysis was founded on the “elite”, “trained” or “technical asymmetric” theory of bilingualism. To give a new orientation to the teaching/learning of French in Nigeria, we looked at the different options for bilingualism available to the average Nigerian at the primary and junior secondary school levels since the aim is to target and attract young learners early to learn the language.
Keywords: French, Globalization, Geo-linguistics, Bilingualism, Nigeria, Foster
Teacher Instructional Variables and Students’ Academic Achievement in Business Studies in Upper Basic Education in Cross River State, Nigeria
Ndifon, Rita A, Cornelius-Ukpepi, Bernedette U and Okpo, Comfort G.
This study examined the influence of teacher Instructional variables and students’ academic achievement in Business Studies in Upper Basic Education in Cross River State, Nigeria. Survey design was adopted for the research. The population of the study comprised all the upper basic students in Cross River State. The sample consisted of 1,020 students and 34 sectional head teachers randomly drawn from schools in Cross River State. Two research hypotheses were formulated to guide the study. Data was gathered through the use of two instruments, namely Teacher Instructional Variables questionnaire (TIVQ) and Business Studies Achievement Test (BSAT). The instruments were validated and reliability ascertained. The reliability value ranged of0.78 to 0.85 was obtained for Teacher instructional variables using Cronbach alpha reliability and Business Studies Achievement Test had a reliability coefficient of 0.769 using Kuder Richardson formula 20. The data was analyzed using One-way Analysis of Variance. The result revealed that teacher instructional variables in term of lesson plan quality and Classroom management effectiveness have significant influence on students’ achievement in Business Studies. Therefore, the null hypothesis was rejected. Based on the findings, it was concluded that teacher instructional variables can influence students’ achievement in Business Studies in Upper Basic Education in Cross River State. It was therefore recommended that all School Administrators should allow, encourage and provide incentives for Business Studies’ teachers to attend seminars, workshops, conference and in-services training to keep them abreast of innovation in the teaching of the subject.
Keywords: Instructional Variables, Lesson plan quality, Classroom management effectiveness Academic Achievement, Business Studies.
Schiraldi’s Enhancement Programme and Self-Esteem of Secondary School Students in Calabar Municipality, Cross River State, Nigeria
Denwigwe, Chiaka Patience and Uche, Rachel D.
The study investigated Schiraldi’s Self-esteem Enhancement Programme and how it affects general and academic self-esteem levels of senior secondary school students in Calabar municipality, Cross River State (CRS), Nigeria. The experimental survey design was adopted for the study. A sample of 350 senior secondary II students (SS2) was selected from seven senior secondary schools in Calabar Municipality, through simple random sampling. Two hypotheses were formulated to guide the study and were tested at 0.05 level of significance. The main instrument for data collection was the Self Descriptive Questionnaire (SDQ) by Marsh and Shavelson (1985). The instrument used for the actual experiment which took a duration of 125 days was the Schiraldi’s Self- esteem Enhancement Programme (SSEEP). The findings revealed a significant increase in the students general and academic self-esteem levels after the application of Schiraldi’s Self-esteem Enhancement Programme. The finding implied that SSEEP is a useful tool in improving students’ self-esteem. It was therefore recommended among others that the use of SSEEP to improve the self-esteem of students should be encouraged.
Keyword:Schiraldi, Enhancement, Programme, Self-esteem, Secondary, Students.
Factors Influencing Academic Performance of Students in French Language in Secondary Schools in Boki Local Government Area of Cross River State, Nigeria
Agbor, Catherine Alex and Ashabua, Derick A.
The study sought to investigate factors that influence academic performance of students in secondary schools in Boki Local Government Area of Cross River State, Nigeria. Two research questions were postulated to guide the study. The research questions were transformed to hypotheses and tested at .05 level of significance using Independent t-test statistical tool. The theory was anchored on Bruner’s constructivist theory of 1966. Literature was reviewed according to the variables of the study. A survey research design was adopted for the study. 200 respondents were randomly sampled out of a population of 1,668. A well validated structured questionnaire was used for data collection. The obtained data were tested by using the independent t-test for the hypotheses. The following findings were made among others; there is a significant difference in the academic performance of students with positive attitude and those with negative attitude towards French as a subject, students’ gender greatly influences students’ academic performance in French Language. Based on these findings, some recommendations were made.
Evaluation of Learners Competence in the use of Information Communication Technology in Nigeria
Agbor, Catherine Alex, Ashabua, Derick A. and Udosen, Ofonime Eshiet
Education has been identified as an important instrument for any aspect of development. Consequently, the Nigerian government regards it as an instrument par excellence for facilitating and fostering national development as well as economic growth. Its potentials to facilitate learning, improve teaching and enhance institutional administration have been established in literature. This study therefore evaluated learners’ competence in the use of Information Communication Technology (ICT) in language classes in private secondary schools in Calabar Education Zone of Cross River State, Nigeria. Review of literature was carried out according to the variables of the study: learners’ competence in terms of basic computer operation, use of application software, internet resources and peripheral ICT equipment. A total of 400 subjects were selected using stratified and random sampling technique from a population that comprised all junior secondary school II students in the area of study. Four hypotheses were formulated to guide the study. The research design used for the study was survey inferential. Data collection was carried out with the instrument called ‘ICT Competence Questionnaire’ (ICTCQ). The test statistics used were population t-test analysis. Results obtained revealed that the level of learners’ competence in the use of ICT in terms of computer operation, application software, internet usage and peripheral ICT equipment are significantly high. Based on the findings, recommendations were made.
Keywords: students’ competence, basic computer operation, application software, internet resources, peripheral ICT equipment.
Les Champs de Transmission des Savoirs Professionnels dans les Entreprises Artisanales de Métiers Ancestraux D’aujourd’hui
Chedli Baya Chatti
This paper aims to shed light on the fields of the transmission of professional knowledge in the artisanal businesses of ancestral trades. This category of companies offers us the opportunity to deal with the elementary dynamics of the professional knowledge's transmission and its survival from the pre-industrial era. Knowledge is transferred and shared from generation to the next. Also, professional skills are learned on the job without learning in vocational schools. In fact, without claiming to be exhaustive, it's a question of examining the fields of professional knowledge's transmission in traditional workplaces that continue to survive so far. By referring to the results of an empirical study concerning the future of this kind of company in Tunisia, we were able to distinguish two main fields of knowledge involved by transmission: knowledge relating to the profession and expertise about life professional.
Keywords: Craft businesses, Ancestral trade, Knowledge Transmission, Professionals Knowledge.
Parenting Styles and Self-esteem of Secondary School Students in the Federal Capital Territory, Abuja, Nigeria
Denwigwe, Chiaka Patience and Uche, Rachel D.
This study investigated the relationship of authoritarian, authoritative, and permissive parenting styles with self-esteem of students in the Federal Capital Territory (FCT), Abuja, Nigeria. With a sample of 120 students randomly selected from three secondary schools in the FCT, parenting styles were related to self-esteem of students through a co-relational study. Three hypotheses were formulated to guide this research and one research question was posed. A researcher-made questionnaire termed Parental Authority and Self-esteem Questionnaire (PAASEQ) was the instrument for data collection while Pearson’s Product Moment Correlation statistic was the statistical tool for data analysis. Findings showed that there were significant positive relationships between authoritative and permissive parenting styles and students’ self-esteem, and a significant negative relationship between authoritarian parenting style and students’ self-esteem. Following these findings, it was recommended that parents should be counselled on the issue of effective parenting, students should be counselled on the need to develop good self-esteem while parents, teachers and significant others should be mindful of the need for psychosocial success among secondary school students.
Keywords: Parenting styles, Self-esteem, Relationship, Secondary school, Students.