European Journal of Social Sciences

 Volume 39 No 2
 July, 2013
Self Help Groups in Cross River State, Nigeria
Uwem Essia, Peter N. Mba, Margaret Ebokpo, Nsa Ekpo and Awuken Obaji
Self Help Groups (SHGs) are generally nonprofessional organizations of about 10 to 20 people, who pool financial resources, make small interest bearing loans to their members, and help each other to deal with the ‘common problem’. Cross River State needs viable and sustainable SHGs to partner with for effective community development, poverty reduction, and informal-formal economy linkages. This paper reviews the evidence on SHGs in Cross River State based on a baseline survey conducted between October and November 2012. The focus was on the outreach, social role, and sustainability of SHGs in the State. Using evidences gathered through interviews and discussions from 568 SHGs, 1092 SHGs members/participants, and selected Self Help Promoting Authorities (SHPAs), the paper submits that SHGs are inhibited by several challenges including multiplicity of registrations, poor record keeping by the various SHPAs, absence of standard registration procedures and operational rules, low SHGs-government dialogue, and weak capacity for accessing bank loans. Arising from these weaknesses, the paper proposes an intervention plan that seeks to make SHGs more attractive to new members, promote healthy SHGs-Government dialogue, and ensure that SHGs access cheap seed for onward lending to the members. Equally needful is creation of a basket fund and clear procedures and requirements for eligible SHGs to partner with government to execute and manage of community development projects sustainably.
Keywords: Self-help groups, linkages, basket fund, credit schemes, federations, savings
A Methodology for Direct Measurement of Outcome-Based Education Program Outcomes Using Assessment Tools
M.B. Baharom, S. Karuppanan and M. A. A. Majid
This paper presents a methodology for direct measurement of Program Outcomes (POs) using assessment tools. The proposed method is a top-down process where the mapping of course curriculum to the POs must firstly be determined. The next process is to design a course outcome (CO) to PO mapping which will serve as a link between the course assessments to the PO. The course instructors were then required to design the Assessment Tools (AT) that address the COs, and prepare the assessment questions based on the design of the matrix. All the matrices were treated as sets of linearly dependent systems. The mapping of the AT to the PO was then derived by multiplying the AT-CO matrix and the CO-PO matrices. The PO measurements were computed using students’ scores in their courses. The final results defining the outcomes of individual students’ achievement were discussed and Continual Quality Improvement (CQI) was proposed to be implemented for problematic cases. The proposed method can be programed by Institution of Higher learning for Outcome Based Education (OBE) implementation and PO measurement.
Keywords: Outcome-based education, program outcome, course outcome, teaching/learning strategy, education methodology
Implementation of Management Tools in Thai Higher Education Institutions
Thanin Silpcharu and Sunee Wantanakomol
The purpose of this study was to investigate usage conditions of and satisfaction with management tools in Thai higher education institutions so as to be guidelines for those who were to make decision on employing appropriate ones. The data were collected by interviewing the institution personnel who were highly responsible for planning. Percentage, arithmetic mean, standard deviation and t-test were used to analyze the data. It was found that the top ten popular tools were SWOT Analysis, PDCA (deming cycle), strategic planning, e-learning, knowledge management, risk management, good governance, competencies, learning organization, and 5 S's respectively. SWOT Analysis was found most satisfactory. The comparison of satisfaction with management tools expressed by informants from different types of higher educational institutions revealed, as a whole, no differences. However, the detailed investigation showed that those in the public higher education institutions were in favor of e-learning, knowledge management and value chain analysis more while those in the private ones were more satisfied with strategic alliance. The statistical significance of this study was set at .05.
Keywords: Management tool, higher education institution.
Aftermath of the Gulf war: Role of the US, UN and the Arab States
Riyad Mofleh AL-Khlaifat
The disaster caused by the Iraq-Kuwait conflict is attributed to incapacity of the UN organization. In contrast to this some insist that the Gulf War was the UN's finest hour. The international community after 40 years of cold war finally united and drew alien in the sands of Arabia and declared aggression never again .The USA declared war not the Secretary General ,not the UN, not even Kuwait. An international organization dedicated "to save succeeding generations from the scourge of war " became the engine for war. It was in the popular mind "UN war", even if it was fought without the UN flag or UN blue helmets. The Gulf Crisis was the first test case for the United Nations’ effectiveness in the post cold war period. Divergent opinions have been expressed ranging from the most important and effective peace-keeper to an overall condemnation of being impotent and irrelevant. Keeping aside these extreme view points, one thing is very clear that the UN initially failed to help the parties to find out a peaceful solution of their differences and later to achieve Iraq’s withdrawal from Kuwait without the use of military force.
Keywords: GCC, middle East, Kurds, Shiites, Emir of Kuwait, PLO.
The Entropy Approaches to Working Correlation Structures for Repeated Measurements
Serpil Kiliç and Ahmet Mete Çilingirtürk
Longitudinal studies with binary response has been applied to a wide range of social and health sciences researches in order to focus on how various covariates affect responses over time. Generalized Estimating Equations (GEE) method developed a method for non-normal longitudinal data by Liang and Zeger in 1986. In this method, correlation between repeated observations of response variable is taken into consideration for estimating model parameters. Since stronger statistical inferences can only be obtained by taking into account the correct correlation structure between repeated observations from same subject, this situation is important for GEE. The purpose of this article is to propose the entropy-based correlation structures of the GEE method for analyzing correlated binary data and compare the results using Marginal R2, QIC and QICU criteria. As a result of the study, it is shown that entropy based correlation structures are improved or closer results compared to other known working correlation structures to determining the structure of repeated measures of response variable. The proposed entropy correlation matrix may improve the efficiency of parameter estimators.
Keywords: Longitudinal Binary Data, Generalized Estimating Equation, Entropy Correlation Matrix, Banking Sector.
JEL Classification Codes: C33, G21.
Explanation of the Process of the Artificial Neural Networks through the Combined Model
Vildan Gülpinar
The Artificial Neural Networks (ANN’s) are the computer systems which are able to learn the events from the realized samples and perform machine learning, simulating real brain functions. When a solution is produced for a problem through the ANN, it is not possible to find any information to understand how and why this solution is produced, which reduces the reliance on the results of the network. There is also no knowledge of the internal workings of the neural networks, which is called “the black box problem”. This is because it is substantially hard to explain how a network learns and why it recommends a certain decision. The solution of the black box problem in the ANN would enhance trust in the results and pave the way for studies on the ANN. The Social Networks (SN’s) are the networks in which people or sometimes, groups of people take place at the corners and some forms of social interactions such as friendship between them are represented by the edges. The SN behaviors are based on the directions and weights of the connections of the nodes and explainable with the strength of the connections. This study is intended to analyze whether the results from the SNA, through which the locations of the nodes (actors) in the network are explainable by the directions and weights of the connections and, the working principle of which is based on this logic, are associated with the weights and connections of the ANN, in order to explain the relation between the input data and output data of a neural network. As a result of this combined model approach, the relation between the results of the SNA and the ANN would indicate that the results of the ANN are based on an explainable logic. It is the intention of this method to analyze the working process of the ANN, making use of the SNA.
Keywords: Artificial Neural Networks, Black Box, Social Network Analysis, Multilayer Perceptrons.
The Effect of Perceptual Judgment of Previous Performance on Next Performance of Novice and Expert in Golf
Taegyong Kwon and Taeho Kim
The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of the perceptual judgment of previous performance on the next performance of golf players by skill level. Among the members of a golf club who participated in a competition, 25 experts with handicap between 1 and 9 and 25 novice players with handicap greater than 25 were selected as participants. All participants were asked to participate in a task that assessed their perception of previous performance immediately after completing each hole throughout 18 holes. Using the collected data, a two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) between the skill level and perceptual judgment score was performed. Results of the analysis showed that performance did not vary depending on the perceptual judgment score in experts while performance tended to be better with high perceptual judgment scores in novices. In addition, experts showed superior performance to novices regardless of perceptual judgment scores. Therefore, the findings from the present study suggest that the effects of the perceptual judgment of previous performance on the next performance vary with the skill level of the performer, and that experts possess superior skills to novices in terms of perceptual judgment and other aspects.
Keywords: Perception, Perceptual Judgment, Skill Level, Golf
Financial Analysis Effectiveness in Predicting Companies Default - Applied study on the Jordanian Public Joint Stock Companies (Industry Sector)
Mo’tasim Al – Dabbas
The researcher’s study includes testing the extent of effectiveness of using the financial statements analysis to predict the companies default. An applied study on the Jordanian industrial public stock companies. The study’s problem lies in answering some questions the researcher poses, where he seeks to achieve the study’s objective, therefore, the study’s problem is presented by knowing the influence of using the profitability ratios, liquidity ratios, the activity ratios and the debits ratio on the firms default. Due to the importance of the industrial companies sector and their rule in developing the national economy, this study has been tested on this sectors through using the financial ratios as an important financial tool to know the problems that face companies which lead to their financial default. The study used mathematical and statistical methods to measure the functional relationship between the variables in order to reach the range of variability between them. This study is different of the previous studies, as most of these studies focused on using the financial ratios to predict the default of banks and companies through developing a model from the financial ratios through which the default can be predicted. Most of the previous studies used the method of multivariables linear analysis, therefore, this study was different because the researcher used the financial ratios to predict the banks and companies default through adopting the existence of a loss exceeds 50% of the subscribed company’s capital. The study’s population included the Jordanian population, while a sample of the Jordanian public stock companies has been chosen from the industrial sector during three years, from 2007-2009. The study’s hypothesises have been tested and analyzed by using the descriptive statistical program (SPSS). The researcher concluded that there is a relationship between using the profitability ratios to predict the default at companies, there is no relationship between using the liquidity ratios to predict the companies default, there is no relationship between using the debts ratios to predict the companies default and finally, there is a prelateship between using the market ratios to predict the companies default. At the end of the study, the researcher recommended to use larger samples, for longer periods, and to extend the data base of companies default to include the full public sector, and not only the industrial companies.
Social Factors as Correlates of Streetism among Urban Children in Ibadan Metropolis, Nigeria
Ojelabi Sunday Adeyemi and Oyewole Oluwaseun
The children working, living and surviving on the street is a global problem, affecting developed and developing countries alike. However, the magnitude of the problem varies, with less developed countries facing more acute problems. The street children are marginalised children who require enormous assistance but they are often least assisted in a society. There are many factors responsible for the increase in the rate of street children and this has necessitated this type of research. This study, therefore, investigated the social factors as correlates of streetism among urban children in Ibadan Metropolis. The study adopted survey research design of the ex-post facto type. Five local governments were purposively selected in urban areas in Ibadan. The respondents selected randomly from each local government area were made up of 50 participants from five local governments, making a total of 250 participants. Questionnaire was the major instrument that was developed and used for the study. The questionnaire was divided into sections A and B. Section A was to elicit relevant general information from the respondents. While section B consisted of thirty-five structured items on Streetism (r=0.7380) and Social Factors (r=0.7714). Three research questions were answered. Data were analysed using Pearson Product Moment correlation and multiple regression statistics. The four variables have a joint positive multiple correlation with streetism (R=.564). The four independent variables also accounted for 30.7% of the variance of street children engage in streetism (Adjusted R2 =.307). Child-independence made the most significant contribution to streetism among urban children (ß=.421; p<0.05) and followed by socio-parental factor (ß=.205; p<0.05). Streetism among urban children was predicted by child-independence (B=1.494, t=6.146; p<0.05) and socio-parental factor (B=.149, t=2.776; p<0.05). The combination of social factor variables (socio-external pulling factor, socio-parental factor, child independence and socio-community factor) proved more effective in predicting streetism among urban children in Ibadan than when considered separately. Child-independence and socio-parental factor are the most potent factors at explaining streetism among urban children. These factors should be taken into consideration in order to reduce the rate of street children in urban area in Ibadan metropolis.
Keywords: Streetism, Child-Independence, Socio-Parental Factor, Socio-External Pulling Factor and Socio-Community Factor
Social Adaptation and its Relationship to Achievement Motivation among High School Students in Jordan
Saleem Odeh AlZboon
The study amid at exploring and detecting the level of social adaptation and its relationship with the achievement motivation of the secondary school students in Jordan, the study sample consisted of 495 secondary school students in the province of Jerash, and to achieve the objective of this study comes the development of two tools: the first one measures the social adaptation, and the second one measures the achievement motivation. The study found many results, including: that the level of social adaptation and achievement motivation among secondary school students in the province of Jerash were high, and also showed the presence of a statistically significant positive relationship between the social adaptation and the achievement motivation among the secondary school students in the province of Jerash too; therefore and in light of these results, the researcher recommends conducting further studies exploring the social adaptation relationship to other variables.
Keywords: Social adaptation, achievement motivation.
Strategic Performance Measurement Systems and Company Performance in Nigerian Companies
Solabomi Omobola Ajibolade and Comfort E. Omorogbe
This study investigated the relationship among usage of Strategic performance measurement systems (SPMS), managers’ perception of their effectiveness (MPCE) and company performance in selected Nigerian Stock Exchange listed companies. Three SPMS were studied namely; Balanced score card (BSC), Activity based costing and management ABC/ABM and Quality cost management (QCM). Company performance was examined using four indicators namely; Non-financial performance (NFP), Average pre-tax earnings (PTE), Average earnings per share (EPS), and Turnover growth rate (TGR). Data obtained through a cross sectional questionnaire survey of 156 managers of the selected companies were analysed using descriptive statistics, ANOVA and OLS regression analysis. Results showed moderate level of usage of all SPMS studied; with the BSC showing the widest usage (81.4% of respondents; Mean usage =4.01); and Moderate level of MPCE (Overall mean= 3.37). In opposition to the study’s hypotheses of no relationships between variables studied based on institutional theory propositions, results at p< 0.05 showed that (1)SPMS usage is positively related to MPCE; (2)MPCE is positively related to 3 of the 4 performance indicators (NFP: R2=.317, F=71.467; PTE: R2=.144, F=25.907; TGR R2=.256, F=52.98) and (3)SPMS usage is positively associated with the three indicators (NFP: R2v=.331, F=25.067; PTE: R2=.102, F=5.753; TGR R2=.217, F=14.041). The study concluded that institutional theory argument does not significantly explain usage of SPMS in Nigerian companies, thus making an important theoretical contribution. Practical contributions and suggestions for future research were also provided.
Keywords: Balanced scorecard, Activity based management, Quality cost management, Company performance, Institutional theory.
JEL Classifications Codes: M41.
Are Tanzanian Households Moving Away from Extended? Evidence from Demographic and Health Survey Data
Esther W. Dungumaro
This paper uses cross-sectional data from four Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) conducted between 1996 and 2010 to establish trends in nuclear and extended households in Tanzania. Associations between types of households and sex of head of household, age of head of household, household size and educational attainment of head of household as the explanatory variables were tested using Pearson’s Chi Square. Multivariate logistic regression model was used to examine independent correlates to living in a nuclear than extended household. Results on trends of nuclear and extended households indicate that Tanzanian households have moved away from extended to largely nuclear. The findings of the study show that nuclear households are associated with household size, place of residence, household wealth index, as well as age and sex of head of household. Furthermore, the study reveals that in urban areas, there are more extended than nuclear households. This observation cautions the existing overgeneralization that nuclear households are more prevalent in urban areas. More site specific analyses are needed to inform both policy and pragmatic interventions.
Keywords: Tanzanian, Households, Demographic and Health Survey, Nuclear households, Extended household.
Availability of Social and Moral Values in the Islamic Books in the Secondary Stage in Saudi Arabia from Teacher' Perspective
Abdullah Bin Falah AL Shahrani
The aim of this study is to determine the moral and social values contained in the books of Islamic education for the third secondary grade in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, this study also aims to identify how much can high school students in Saudi Arabia acquire the moral and social values contained in the books of Islamic education. Moreover, the study aims to identify the most effective teaching methods for the acquisition of high school students in Saudi Arabia the moral and social values contained in the books of Islamic education through the second tool adopted in the study, which is a questionnaire addressed to the student. The study consisted of the following main question: How much can the books of Islamic education instill the social and moral values in high school students in Saudi Arabia from their own point of view? The study was limited to the book of Islamic Education to the third grade secondary students/ scientific branch in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
The Impact of Using Multi Senses in Teaching Mathematics for Students with Learning Disabilities
Ibrahim Shihab
This study aimed at investigating the impact of using Multi senses for teaching mathematics for students with learning disabilities. The researcher followed the equivalent pre/post T test two group designs. To achieve the goal of the study a pre/ post- test was constructed to measure students' achievement in mathematics. The sample of this study consisted of 142 students; sixty nine male students and seventy three female students with learning disabilities at ten schools in Irbid first educational directorate during the first semester of the academic year 2012/2013. The subjects of the study were distributed into two groups (experimental group and control group). The experimental group was taught mathematics through using multi senses while the control group was taught mathematics using the traditional way of teaching. The subjects were 34 male students for the experimental group and 35 male students for the control group, while the female students for the experimental and control group were 37 and 36 respectively. Those subjects were distributed into two purposefully selected groups. Descriptive statistical analyses were used (means and standard deviation) for the pre and post- tests of students' mathematics test to experimental and control groups. Comparison statistical methods were used (Two Way ANOVA) analysis of variance to make a comparison between the control and the experimental groups and gender variable (male and female). The findings of the study indicated that there were statistically significant differences in the post- test between the control and the experimental groups in favor of the experimental group, and there was no statistically significant difference in the students' achievement due to gender. There was no statistically significant difference due to the interaction between gender and group. The researcher proposed some recommendations to enhance the effect of using multi senses for teaching mathematics to students with learning disabilities on their performance such as conducting further studies in other universities.
Keywords: Multi Senses Approach, Students with Learning Disabilities.